The manufacturing process of fishmeal , is made from of the raw material Anchovy , a species that is fished mainly off the coasts of Peru and Chile. The quality of the flour to be produced depends directly on the quality of the raw material to be processed, so it is important that fresh and good-sized raw material be caught, in a way that allows the production of a flour of excellent features. Basically the production process comprises the following stages:

Unloading of raw material

First, the raw material is unloaded from the fishing vessels, through a naval device called Chata, from where the fish is pumped to the factory, where it is weighed and displayed to check freshness. of the same, through the analysis of TBVN, which is the measurement of the total volatile nitrogenous bases present in the fish, considering TBVN values ​​lower than 20mg / 100g as fresh raw material and higher than this as old. All fish are stored in storage ponds from where they will be pumped for processing.

Cooking Stage

by means of this unitary operation, the coagulation of proteins and the release of fat and water are mainly sought, in addition, through heat, it is possible to stop the enzymatic and microbial activity, for this stage cookers are used to which by injecting dry steam optimal cooking is achieved on the shaft and jackets at temperatures close to 100 ° C. The water product of this stage is drained by the Pre Strainer, and is diverted to the separators.

Stage Pressing

In this stage the pressing operation seeks the liquid separation of the solid, where the liquid is made up of water and fat, while the solid will be called press cake which will preserve anyway. some remnant of fat and moisture. The liquid called press liquor will join the liquid generated in the PreStrainer and will be treated in the separators, where the insoluble solids will be separated from said liquor, which will then be derived to the centrifugation stage, while that the solid called separator cake will join the press cake to enter the primary drying stage.

Centrifugation Stage

In this stage, this operation is carried out using equipment that, using centrifugal force, separates the components of the liquor from the separators, which consists of fat, tail water (soluble solids) and sludge, based on the principle of density difference.

Stage Evaporation

In this stage, the water is eliminated from the glue water generated in the centrifugation stage, so that the concentration of the solids present in this liquid is achieved (40%), generating a concentrate that is then attached to the press cake , to continue the drying process. Falling film evaporators of various effects are used for this stage, depending on the productive capacity of the plant.

Primary Drying Stage

At this stage, what is sought is to dehydrate the press cake , separator cake and the concentrate , which previously homogenized by means of a wet mill, they enter the dryers that could be of the Rotadisk or Rotatubos type, where both work with dry steam.

Stage Secondary Drying

In this stage, the aim is to reduce the humidity of this material to levels where microbial growth is not feasible and it can also be self-preserved (6% – 8%), so that enzymatic activities that can deteriorate the product do not occur. Hot air dryers are used at this stage.

Stage Grinding

This stage seeks to reduce the size of the scrap solids from the previous stage, until it meets the customer’s specifications (> 98% in 200 mesh). At this stage, the fishmeal acquires its classic physical characteristics.

Antioxidant Dosage

Finally, before bagging the final product, it must go through the Antioxidant dosage stage, as this will prevent the fats present in the fish meal from oxidizing, achieving the stabilization of the final product. The antioxidant most used for this purpose is Ethoxyquim.

Remember that the autoxidation of fats present in fishmeal results in a highly exothermic process, therefore that when this type of reaction occurs, there is an increase in the temperature of the flour, which even burns, producing the typical burning smell, so it is convenient to immediately separate the affected flour from the normal one.